Europa wikipedia

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and Asia to the east. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.

European culture has enjoyed a primacy or privilege, often referred to as " Eurocentrism ", in the shaping of the modern world-systemthrough both military conquest and other forms of domination. Renaissance humanismexplorationart and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discoverystarted by Portugal and SpainEurope played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers colonized at various times the Americasalmost all of Africa and Oceaniaand the majority of Asia.

The Age of Enlightenmentthe subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolutionwhich began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural and social change in Western Europe and eventually the wider world.

Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the midth century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. Inthe Council of Europe was founded with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union EUa separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.

The currency of most countries of the European Union, the eurois the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU's Schengen Area abolishes border and immigration controls between most of its member states. There exists a political movement favoring the evolution of the European Union into a single super-federation encompassing much of the continent.

Beekes who has argued in favor of a Pre-Indo-European origin for the name, explaining that a derivation from ancient Greek eurus would yield a different toponym than Europa. Beekes has located toponyms related to that of Europa in the territory of ancient Greece and localities like that of Europos in ancient Macedonia. Michael A. Barry finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, [the country of] sunset", in opposition to Asu "[the country of] sunrise", i.

In some Turkic languages, the originally Persian name Frangistan "land of the Franks " is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa. Clickable map of Europe, showing one of the most commonly used continental boundaries [24] Key: blue : states which straddle the border between Europe and Asia ; green : countries not geographically in Europe, but closely associated with the continent.

Europa (moon)

The prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the midth century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water to the north, west and south; Europe's limits to the east and northeast are usually taken to be the Ural Mountainsthe Ural Riverand the Caspian Sea ; to the southeast, the Caucasus Mountainsthe Black Sea and the waterways connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.

Islands are generally grouped with the nearest continental landmass, hence Iceland is considered to be part of Europe, while the nearby island of Greenland is usually assigned to North Americaalthough politically belonging to Denmark.

Nevertheless, there are some exceptions based on sociopolitical and cultural differences. Cyprus is closest to Anatolia or Asia Minorbut is considered part of Europe politically and it is a member state of the EU.

Malta was considered an island of Northwest Africa for centuries, but now it is considered to be part of Europe as well. The term "continent" usually implies the physical geography of a large land mass completely or almost completely surrounded by water at its borders. However the Europe-Asia part of the border is somewhat arbitrary and inconsistent with this definition because of its partial adherence to the Ural and Caucasus Mountains rather than a series of partly joined waterways suggested by cartographer Herman Moll in These water divides extend with a few relatively small interruptions compared to the aforementioned mountain ranges from the Turkish straits running into the Mediterranean Sea to the upper part of the Ob River that drains into the Arctic Ocean.

Prior to the adoption of the current convention that includes mountain divides, the border between Europe and Asia had been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquitybut always as a series of rivers, seas, and straits that were believed to extend an unknown distance east and north from the Mediterranean Sea without the inclusion of any mountain ranges. The current division of Eurasia into two continents now reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line.

The geographic border between Europe and Asia does not follow any state boundaries and now only follows a few bodies of water. Turkey is generally considered a transcontinental country divided entirely by water, while Russia and Kazakhstan are only partly divided by waterways.

FrancePortugalthe NetherlandsSpain and the United Kingdom are also transcontinental or more properly, intercontinental, when oceans or large seas are involved in that their main land areas are in Europe while pockets of their territories are located on other continents separated from Europe by large bodies of water. Spainfor example, has territories south of the Mediterranean Sea namely Ceuta and Melilla which are parts of Africa and share a border with Morocco.

According to the current convention, Georgia and Azerbaijan are transcontinental countries where waterways have been completely replaced by mountains as the divide between continents. As a name for a part of the known world, it is first used in the 6th century BC by Anaximander and Hecataeus. Anaximander placed the boundary between Asia and Europe along the Phasis River the modern Rioni River on the territory of Georgia in the Caucasus, a convention still followed by Herodotus in the 5th century BC.This can especially be said of the story of Europa.

Europa's earliest literary reference is in the Iliadwhich is commonly dated to the 8th century BC. It is common in ancient Greek mythology and geography to identify lands or rivers with female figures. Thus, Europa is first used in a geographic context in the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apolloin reference to the western shore of the Aegean Sea. Barry adduces the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night", "[the country of] sunset", in opposition to Asu "[the country of] sunrise", i.

Sources differ in details regarding Europa's family, but agree that she is Phoenicianand from a lineage that ultimately descended from Argive princess Iothe mythical nymph beloved of Zeus, who was transformed into a heifer. She is generally said to be the daughter of Agenorthe Phoenician King of Tyre ; [14] the Syracusan poet Moschus [15] makes her mother Queen Telephassa "far-shining" but elsewhere her mother is Argiope "white-faced".

So some interpret this as her brother Phoenix when he is assumed to be son of Agenor gave his siblings' name to his three children and this Europa by this case, niece of former is also loved by Zeus, but because of the same name, gave some confusions to others.

After arriving in Crete, Europa had three sons fathered by Zeus: MinosRhadamanthusand Sarpedonthe three of whom became the three judges of the Underworld when they died. In some accounts, Carnus [19] and Alagonia [20] were added to the list of children of Europa and Zeus. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology explains that Zeus was enamoured of Europa and decided to seduce or rape her, the two being near-equivalent in Greek myth. While Europa and her helpers were gathering flowers, she saw the bull, caressed his flanks, and eventually got onto his back.

Zeus took that opportunity and ran to the sea and swam, with her on his back, to the island of Crete. He then revealed his true identity, and Europa became the first queen of Crete. Zeus gave her a necklace made by Hephaestus [3] and three additional gifts: TalosLaelaps and a javelin that never missed. Zeus later re-created the shape of the white bull in the stars, which is now known as the constellation Taurus.

It should not be confused with the Cretan Bull that fathered the Minotaur and was captured by Heracles. According to Herodotus ' rationalizing approach, Europa was kidnapped by Greeks probably Cretans who were seeking to avenge the kidnapping of Ioa princess from Argos. His variant story may have been an attempt to rationalize the earlier myth; or the present myth may be a garbled version of facts—the abduction of a Phoenician aristocrat—later enunciated without gloss by Herodotus.

In the territory of Phoenician SidonLucian of Samosata 2nd century AD was informed that the temple of Astartewhom Lucian equated with the moon goddess, was sacred to Europa:.

The paradox, as it seemed to Lucian, would be solved if Europa is Astarte in her guise as the full, "broad-faced" moon. In the more familiar telling she was seduced by the god Zeus in the form of a bull, who breathed from his mouth a saffron crocus [3] and carried her away to Crete on his back—to be welcomed by Asterion[28] but according to the more literal, euhemerist version that begins the account of Persian-Hellene confrontations of Herodotus[29] she was kidnapped by Cretanswho likewise were said to have taken her to Crete.

The mythical Europa cannot be separated from the mythology of the sacred bullwhich had been worshipped in the Levant. Inan archaeological mission of the British Museum led by Lebanese archaeologist, Claude Doumet Serhal, discovered at the site of the old American school in SidonLebanon currency that depicts Europa riding the bull with her veil flying all over like a bow, further proof of Europa's Phoenician origin.

Europa does not seem to have been venerated directly in cult anywhere in classical Greece, [31] but at Lebadaea in BoeotiaPausanias noted in the 2nd century AD that Europa was the epithet of Demeter —"Demeter whom they surname Europa and say was the nurse of Trophonios"—among the Olympians who were addressed by seekers at the cave sanctuary of Trophonios of Orchomenusto whom a chthonic cult and oracle were dedicated: "the grove of Trophonios by the river Herkyna Europa provided the substance of a brief Hellenistic epic written in the mid-2nd century BCE by Moschusa bucolic poet and friend of the Alexandrian grammarian Aristarchus of Samothraceborn at Syracuse.

His picturesque details belong to anecdote and fable: in all the depictions, whether she straddles the bull, as in archaic vase-paintings or the ruined metope fragment from Sikyonor sits gracefully sidesaddle as in a mosaic from North Africa, there is no trace of fear.

Often Europa steadies herself by touching one of the bull's horns, acquiescing. Her tale is also mentioned in Nathaniel Hawthorne 's Tanglewood Tales. Though his story titled "Dragon's teeth" is largely about Cadmus, it begins with an elaborate albeit toned down version of Europa's abduction by the beautiful bull.

The tale also features as the subject of a poem and film in the Enderby fictional character sequence of novels by Anthony Burgess. She is remembered in De Mulieribus Clarisa collection of biographies of historical and mythological women by the Florentine author Giovanni Boccacciocomposed in — It is notable as the first collection devoted exclusively to biographies of women in Western literature.

Europa in a fresco at Pompeiicontemporary with Ovid. Europa velificans"her fluttering tunic… in the breeze" mosaic, Zeugma Mosaic Museum.

Europa (consort of Zeus)

The Rape of Europa by Titian The Rape of Europa by Francisco Goya The Rape of Europa by Valentin Serov The name Europeas a geographical term, was used by Ancient Greek geographers such as Strabo to refer to part of Thrace below the Balkan mountains. In the 8th century, ecclesiastical uses of "Europa" for the imperium of Charlemagne provide the source for the modern geographical term.Relieful Europei este foarte variat pe zone relativ mici.

Caracteristici: cca.

europa wikipedia

Acestea sunt cele mai fertile soluri din Europa. Articol principal: Istoria Europei. Articol principal: Geografia Europei.

🖖SS LIBERTE / EUROPA - The ship that sank three times -- [O navio que afundou três vezes]

Groenlanda Dan. Svalbard Nor. Regatul Unit. Oceanul Arctic. Marea Barents.

europa wikipedia

Golful Biscaya. Marea Azov. Marea Groenlandei.

Marea Baffin. Atlanticul de Nord. Marea Nordului. Marea Norvegiei. Articol principal: Demografia Europei. Articol principal: Limbile Europei. Articol principal: Cultura Europei. Migration News. January Volume 17 Number 1. Population Reference Bureau. Antologia Statelor Lumii ed. Accesat la data de 17 februarie Office for National Statistics. The Office of Statistics and Census of the Italy.

National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria.Clubs qualify for the competition based on their performance in their national leagues and cup competitions. The re-branding included a merge with the UEFA Intertoto Cupproducing an enlarged competition format, with an expanded group stage and a change in qualifying criteria. Spanish clubs have the highest number of victories 12 winsfollowed by England and Italy 9 wins each. The title has been won by 28 clubs, 13 of which have won it more than once.

The most successful club in the competition is Sevillawith six titles. Sevilla are also the reigning champions, having beaten Inter Milan 3—2 in the final.

The competition grew from 11 teams during the first cup —58 to 64 teams by the last cup which was played in — Gladbach would win the competition in andand reach the final again in Feyenoord won the cup in after defeating Tottenham Hotspur 4—2 on aggregate 2—2 in London, 2—0 in Rotterdam. Liverpool won the competition for the second time in after defeating Club Brugge in the final.

The s started with two all-Italian finals, and inTorino lost the final to Ajax on the away goals rule. Juventus won the competition for a third time in and Internazionale kept the cup in Italy the following year. The year saw a third all-Italian final, with Parma proving their consistency, after two consecutive Cup Winners' Cup finals. The only final with no Italians during that decade was in Internazionale reached the final the following two years, losing in to Schalke 04 on penalties, and winning yet another all-Italian final intaking home the cup for the third time in only eight years.

Parma won the cup inwhich ended the Italian-domination era. The era of 's begun with Galatasarays victory, the only Turkish team winning the trophy until that time. Liverpool won the competition for the third time in InFeyenoord became winners for the second time in club history by defeating Borussia Dortmund 3—2 in the final played in their own stadium, De Kuip in Rotterdam.

Porto triumphed in the and tournaments, with the latter victory against fellow Portuguese side Braga. Inthe cup returned to Spain with Valencia being victorious, and then Sevilla succeeded on two consecutive occasions in andthe latter in a final against fellow Spaniards Espanyol. InSevilla won their third cup in eight years after defeating Benfica on penalties.The original Europa and its variants comprise the Lotus Types 46, 47, 54, 65 and 74, and were produced between and The name was later revived in the Type Europa Sa sports car based on the Lotus Elise produced from to By the mids, the mid-engine vehicle configuration was well-established as the optimal design for Grand Prix cars, however almost no road vehicles yet used this arrangement.

Lotus planned the Europa to be a volume-produced, two-seater mid-engine sports coupe built to reasonable cost, quite an ambitious goal for the time. Like all Lotus vehicles of the era, the Europa was designed and built following Chapman's oft-stated philosophy of automotive design: "Simplify, then add lightness". To this end, a number of ingenious design approaches were made by Lotus to allow it to economically overcome the many challenges presented by the novel mid-engine arrangement.

Production of the original Lotus Europa ceased inwith a total of 9, cars of all models having been built. Earliest versions of the Europa had the body fully bonded to the chassis for maximum structural stiffness, however this was soon changed to a bolted-on body to allow normal chassis and body repairs to be made.

Unlike the Elan, the Europa had no front-mounted engine or gearbox to accommodate, and so the Europa's main chassis member ran straight forward to intersect a large box-section cross-beam running across the car between the front suspension points.

At the rear, the chassis split into a "U" shape behind the cabin to accommodate the combined engine, transmission and final-drive components, and to support the rear suspension. The sourcing of suitable engine, gearbox and final-drive components was considered critical to the success of delivering a low-cost mid-engine vehicle. In the Renault, the transaxle sat ahead of the engine, driving the front wheels.

By repositioning the differential crownwheel within the final drive assembly, the direction of rotation of the output shafts was reversed, thus correcting this shortcoming. The Renault 16's engine's design met Lotus's requirements. It used an aluminium block with cast-iron cylinder linerswhich saved appreciable weight compared to the cast-iron blocks more common at the time.

Its overhead-valve design had the camshaft located high-up in the block, resulting in a compact valve-train well suited for high-rpm operation. Most importantly, all the engine ancillaries water pump, belt-drives, alternator were driven off a v-belt pulley fixed to the transaxle end of the camshaft instead of being driven by the engine's crankshaft.

When fitted to the Europa, this pulley location put all the engine's ancillaries at its rear face giving easy access for maintenance, rather than them being located against the vehicle's bulkhead as-for most conventional engines. For Lotus' use, the Renault engine was given a number of key improvements, including a higher compression ratio It was reported that Lotus initially delayed its introduction in the Europa until they were confident in the strength of the Renault transaxle.

The twin-cam engine first appeared in the Europa engine bay in mid in Europe and early in North America. When Renault introduced their most powerful 16 TX model init included a strengthened 5-speed transmission.Europa Europa German : Hitlerjunge Salomonlit. It is based on the autobiography of Solomon Perela German Jewish boy who escaped the Holocaust by masquerading as a " Nazi " German.

The film stars Marco Hofschneider as Perel; who appears briefly as himself in the finale. The film should not be confused with the Lars von Trier film Europawhich was initially released as Zentropa in the United States to avoid confusion.

Solek a Polish nickname for Solomon and his family live in Nazi Germany.

europa wikipedia

On the eve of Solek's bar mitzvahKristallnacht occurs. He escapes, naked, and hides in a barrel. At night, he asks an acquaintance to bring him clothes from his house. She refuses but throws him a leather jacket with a swastika armband. He returns home to his family but his sister is dead, killed by Nazis. Solly causes criminal damage and the police are called. Thanks to her, Solly can go to the cinema without paying for tickets.

Later, they establish a romantic relationship. Solly is happy that the criminal case will be forgotten, since the police will have more important matters to attend to. Solek's family decides he and his brother should leave for Eastern Europe. Solek meets hysterically upset Basia but his brother separates them. Isaak and Solek flee towards the eastern border of Poland, only to find the Soviet invasion of Poland.

In an ironic scene, as Solek and other Jewish refugees cross a river in a small boat, while a boat carrying Polish refugees fleeing the Soviets, passes in the opposite direction, Solomon explains in an internal monologue that the Jews, fearing Nazi persecution, fled toward the Soviets, while the Poles, who feared the Soviets more, fled toward the Germans.

The brothers are separated and Solek is placed in a Soviet orphanage in Grodno with other Polish refugee children. Solek lives in the orphanage for two years, where he joins the Komsomol and receives Communist education.

Being a teenager, he has a romantic interest in Inna, a young and attractive instructor who defends him when the authorities at school discover that his class origin is bourgeois. He even climbs outside the building to watch her in her bedroom.

europa wikipedia

One scene features a Russian version of the German Communist song Dem Morgenrot Entgegen "Towards The Dawn" before mail call, where Solek receives a letter from his parents who have been imprisoned in a ghetto. The orphanage is evacuated but Solek is left behind, to be found by German soldiers.

Solek gets rid of his identity papers and tells the Germans he is "Josef Peters", a Volksdeutscher ethnic German from a Baltic German family in Latvia. Although he does not respond to his made-up name, the soldiers deduce that he was in the orphanage because his parents were killed by the Soviets and promise him vengeance. When the unit captures Yakov Dzhugashvilithe son of Joseph Stalin with Solly's help translating Russianthey declare "Jupp" to be their good-luck charm and adopt him as an auxiliary.

Thanks to his fluent German and Russian, he becomes their interpreter. He accompanies the unit for several weeks and sees all the horrors of war, including murdered civilians, as the Germans seek to crush Soviet resistance. Solek remains in danger; he cannot let anyone see him bathing, because his circumcised penis would expose "Jupp" as a Jew. Robert, one of the soldiers and a homosexualsneaks in on "Jupp" when he finally manages a private bath. Solek rejects Robert's advances but knowing that both of them have secrets the Nazis would kill them for, they become close friends.

A bizarre combat incident occurs. Robert is killed and Solek, left alone, tries to get to the Soviet lines. As he crosses a bridge, the unit charges across behind him and the Soviet troops surrender; "Jupp" is hailed as a hero.

The company commander decides that "such a fine young German" should be properly educated. He is childless, so he tells "Jupp" that he will adopt him and send him to the elite Hitler Youth Academy in Braunschweig to receive Nazi education, much to Solek's consternation.It is also the sixth-largest moon in the Solar System.

Slightly smaller than Earth's MoonEuropa is primarily made of silicate rock and has a water-ice crust [13] and probably an iron—nickel core. It has a very thin atmosphere, composed primarily of oxygen. Its surface is striated by cracks and streaks, but craters are relatively few. In addition to Earth-bound telescope observations, Europa has been examined by a succession of space-probe flybys, the first occurring in the early s.

Europa has the smoothest surface of any known solid object in the Solar System. The apparent youth and smoothness of the surface have led to the hypothesis that a water ocean exists beneath the surfacewhich could conceivably harbor extraterrestrial life. This may be important in determining whether Europa could be habitable.

Such plume activity could help researchers in a search for life from the subsurface Europan ocean without having to land on the moon. The Galileo mission, launched inprovides the bulk of current data on Europa. No spacecraft has yet landed on Europa, although there have been several proposed exploration missions. Europa, along with Jupiter's three other large moons, IoGanymedeand Callistowas discovered by Galileo Galilei on 8 January[1] and possibly independently by Simon Marius.

However, in that observation, Galileo could not separate Io and Europa due to the low magnification of his telescope, so that the two were recorded as a single point of light.

The following day, 8 January used as the discovery date for Europa by the IAUIo and Europa were seen for the first time as separate bodies during Galileo's observations of the Jupiter system. Europa is the namesake of Europadaughter of the king of Tyrea Phoenician noblewoman in Greek mythology. Like all the Galilean satellites, Europa is named after a lover of Zeusthe Greek counterpart of Jupiter. Europa was courted by Zeus and became the queen of Crete. Europa Agenoris filia Secundus Europa First, three young women who were captured by Jupiter for secret love shall be honoured, [including] Europa, the daughter of Agenor The second [moon] is called by me Europa Io, Europa, the boy Ganymede, and Callisto greatly pleased lustful Jupiter.

The names fell out of favor for a considerable time and were not revived in general use until the midth century. Inthe discovery of Amaltheawhose orbit lay closer to Jupiter than those of the Galilean moons, pushed Europa to the third position. The Voyager probes discovered three more inner satellites inso Europa is now counted as Jupiter's sixth satellite, though it is still referred to as Jupiter II.

With an orbital eccentricity of only 0.

Lotus Europa

Because of this, there is a sub-Jovian point on Europa's surface, from which Jupiter would appear to hang directly overhead.

Europa's prime meridian is a line passing through this point. This suggests an asymmetry in internal mass distribution and that a layer of subsurface liquid separates the icy crust from the rocky interior. The slight eccentricity of Europa's orbit, maintained by the gravitational disturbances from the other Galileans, causes Europa's sub-Jovian point to oscillate around a mean position. As Europa comes slightly nearer to Jupiter, Jupiter's gravitational attraction increases, causing Europa to elongate towards and away from it.

As Europa moves slightly away from Jupiter, Jupiter's gravitational force decreases, causing Europa to relax back into a more spherical shape, and creating tides in its ocean. The orbital eccentricity of Europa is continuously pumped by its mean-motion resonance with Io. Analysis of the unique cracks lining Europa yielded evidence that it likely spun around a tilted axis at some point in time. If correct, this would explain many of Europa's features. Europa's immense network of crisscrossing cracks serves as a record of the stresses caused by massive tides in its global ocean.

Europa's tilt could influence calculations of how much of its history is recorded in its frozen shell, how much heat is generated by tides in its ocean, and even how long the ocean has been liquid.

Its ice layer must stretch to accommodate these changes. When there is too much stress, it cracks. A tilt in Europa's axis could suggest that its cracks may be much more recent than previously thought.